Functional mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure and depressed ejection fraction

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Purpose of review

Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a common complication of left ventricular dysfunction. It is now recognized as an important clinical entity and an independent predictor of poor prognosis in cardiomyopathy patients. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiology, latest imaging modalities, and diagnostic criteria for FMR. Additionally, we discuss the recent literature on the continuously evolving surgical and percutaneous treatment options.

Recent findings

The criteria for quantification of FMR on echocardiography were updated and are distinct from organic mitral regurgitation in the most recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2014 valve guidelines. Furthermore, the evolving role of MitraClip for potential treatment of FMR offers exciting prospects to treat high-risk symptomatic patients.


Our review serves to consolidate the current diagnostic and treatment modalities for FMR and provide a contemporary resource for clinicians while treating patients. Additionally, we identify the gaps present in our knowledge of FMR to guide further clinical investigation.

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