Insights into cardiorenal interactions in acute decompensated heart failure

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is one of the biggest challenges in the management of chronic heart failure. Despite the advances in medical and device therapy, high readmission and mortality rates continue to be a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. One of the strongest predictors of adverse outcomes in ADHF is renal dysfunction, referred to as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1. This review discusses some of the recently introduced findings related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of this disorder.

Recent findings

There is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ADHF and CRS. Systemic and intrarenal hemodynamic data provided a much deeper insight into various mechanisms of interaction between the heart and the kidney. Novel biomarkers have been discovered and developed recently to help diagnose and predict prognosis of CRS. Although there was optimism toward using ultrafiltration in treating ADHF with CRS, recent data did not support that, and management remains primarily driven by reversing ADHF hemodynamic and neurohormonal derangements.

Summary

ADHF with CRS carries poor prognosis and high mortality. There is a need for individual risk assessment and management. A dedicated experienced multidisciplinary team is needed to diagnose and manage patients with this problem. Different approaches are needed to address the complex elements of this disorder.

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