Antibody-mediated rejection in the cardiac allograft: diagnosis, treatment and future considerations

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Purpose of review

This review summarizes the latest publications dealing with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and defines areas of controversy and future steps that may improve the outcome for patients with this virulent form of rejection.

Recent findings

Recent progress includes publication of standardized pathologic criteria for acute AMR by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) and guidelines for treatment of acute AMR by the American Heart Association, endorsed by ISHLT as well. Recently published review articles emphasize the important role of innate immune mechanisms, clarify the role of viral infection and provide insights into vascular biology and the role of innate effector populations, macrophages and dendritic cells.


Strategies for future studies are discussed in the context of these new findings and similar efforts undertaken by renal and liver allograft investigators.

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