Acute kidney injury in hematological patients

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The present article reviews the recent literature on the main aspects of acute kidney injury (AKI) developing in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to ICU.

Recent findings

Up to two thirds of critically ill patients with hematological malignancies develop AKI. Current mortality rates range from 40 to 60% for most patients with hematological malignancies, except for recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in whom outcomes remain very poor. Renal function recovery occurs in most patients with AKI, but is dependent on the underlying causes. AKI is usually multifactorial, resulting from causes common to other ICU patients and related to the underlying malignancy or its treatment. New targeted therapies and treatment strategies are potentially associated with AKI. Management of these patients requires a high degree of suspicion, close monitoring of metabolic parameters, and use of preventive strategies to limit risk of AKI or to mitigate its severity.

Summary

AKI is a frequent and severe complication in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies. As the clinical management is complex, close collaboration with hematologists is paramount.

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