Protocolized care for early shock resuscitation

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Protocolized care for early shock resuscitation (PCESR) has been intensely examined over the last decade. The purpose is to review the pathophysiologic basis, historical origin, clinical applications, components and outcome implications of PCESR.

Recent findings

PCESR is a multifaceted systems-based approach that includes early detection of high-risk patients and interventions to rapidly reverse hemodynamic perturbations that result in global or regional tissue hypoxia. It has been applied to perioperative surgery, trauma, cardiology (heart failure and acute myocardial infarction), pulmonary embolus, cardiac arrest, undifferentiated shock, postoperative cardiac surgery and pediatric septic shock. When this approach is used for adult septic shock, in particular, it is associated with a mortality reduction from 46.5 to less than 30% over the last 2 decades. Challenges to these findings are seen when repeated trials contain enrollment, diagnostic and therapeutic methodological differences.

Summary

PCESR is more than a hemodynamic optimization procedure. It also provides an educational framework for the less experienced and objective recognition of clinical improvement or deterioration. It further minimizes practices’ variation and provides objective measures that can be audited, evaluated and amendable to continuous quality improvement. As a result, morbidity and mortality are improved.

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