Minimally invasive cardiac output technologies in the ICU: putting it all together

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Purpose of reviewHaemodynamic monitoring is a cornerstone in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment in critically ill patients in circulatory distress. The interest in using minimally invasive cardiac output monitors is growing. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available devices to provide an overview of their validation studies in order to answer the question whether these devices are ready for implementation in clinical practice.Recent findingsCurrent evidence shows that minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring devices are not yet interchangeable with (trans)pulmonary thermodilution in measuring cardiac output. However, validation studies are generally single centre, are based on small sample sizes in heterogeneous groups, and differ in the statistical methods used.SummaryMinimally and noninvasive monitoring devices may not be sufficiently accurate to replace (trans)pulmonary thermodilution in estimating cardiac output. The current paradigm shift to explore trending ability rather than investigating agreement of absolute values alone is to be applauded. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of these devices in the context of (functional) haemodynamic monitoring before adoption into clinical practice can be recommended.

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