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Patients with cancer increasingly make up a significant proportion of patients receiving care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Acute kidney injury and cancer-associated electrolyte disorders are encountered in many of these patients and can significantly impact both short-term and long-term outcomes.Advances in chemotherapeutic regimens as well as in our understanding of cancer-associated kidney disease highlight the need for specialized knowledge of the unique causes and therapies required in this subset of critically ill patients. This is especially the case as targeted cancer therapies may have off-target effects that need to be recognized in a timely manner.This review outlines key knowledge areas for critical care physicians and nephrologists caring for patients with cancer and associated kidney issues such as acute kidney injury and electrolyte disorders. Specifically, understanding kidney-specific effects of new chemotherapeutic approaches is outlined, and provides an up-to-date compendium of these effects.