Perioperative renal protection

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Purpose of review

The present article reviews the recent literature on the main aspects of perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI).

Recent findings

AKI occurs in 1 in every 10 surgical patients, with cardiac, orthopedic, and major abdominal surgeries being the procedures associated with the highest risk. Overall, complex operations, bleeding, and hemodynamic instability are the most consistent procedure-related risk factors for AKI. AKI increases hospital stay, mortality, and chronic kidney disease, gradually with severity. Furthermore, delayed renal recovery negatively impacts on patients’ outcomes. Cell cycle arrest biomarkers seem promising to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from the bundles recommended by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Hemodynamic management using protocol-based administration of fluids and vasopressors helps reducing AKI. Recent studies have highlighted the benefit of personalizing the blood pressure target according to the patient's resting reference, and avoiding both hypovolemia and fluid overload. Preliminary research has reported encouraging renoprotective effects of angiotensin II and nitric oxide, which need to be confirmed. Moreover, urinary oxygenation monitoring appears feasible and a fair predictor of postoperative AKI.


AKI remains a frequent and severe postoperative complication. A personalized


multicomponent approach might help reducing the risk of AKI and improving patients’ outcomes.

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