Lipolytic PPAR activation: new insights into the intersection of triglycerides and inflammation?

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Abstract

Purpose of review

To examine connections between triglyceride metabolism and inflammation, especially as they relate to transcriptional regulation through peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors activation.

Recent findings

Peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors, members of the steroid hormone nuclear receptor family, have been of particular interest as a mechanism through which different dietary components might control gene expression. Extensive prior work has defined the central role peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors play in many key metabolic responses, including glucose control and lipid metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor activation may limit inflammation and atherosclerosis. The demonstration that certain fatty acids can activate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors belies the potential link between nutritional components and peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor responses. Interest in this connection had been heightened by recent evidence that lipolysis in certain situations can both generate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor ligands and limit some known inflammatory responses.

Summary

Lipolytic peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor activation suggests new ways in which to reconsider triglycerides and the distal consequences of their metabolism, including the possible effects on inflammation and atherosclerosis.

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