AbstractPurpose of review
Patients with double temporary enterostomy or enterocutaneous fistula may suffer from intestinal failure. Parenteral nutrition is the gold standard treatment until surgical re-establishment of intestinal continuity, but serious complications may arise. Chyme reinfusion or enteroclysis are indicated.Recent findings
Chyme reinfusion corrects the intestinal failure by restoring intestinal absorption, allowing parenteral nutrition weaning in 91% of patients. Chyme reinfusion contributes to improve nutritional status and reduce plasma liver test abnormalities. Chyme reinfusion is feasible at home without any serious complications in selected patients. Mechanisms underlying chyme reinfusion effectiveness on intestinal function, such as restoration of ileal brake, are suggested but most remain to be demonstrated. When the downstream small bowel is exposed, enteroclysis of enteral nutrition or hydration could be helpful to reduce parenteral nutrition needs, or in case of insufficient food intake during chyme reinfusion.Summary
Chyme reinfusion or enteroclysis are less expensive, well tolerated, and easy-to-use nutrition support techniques, which may allow reducing parenteral nutrition-related healthcare costs. The latter remains to be demonstrated in the setting of a prospective randomized controlled trial. This review may contribute to improve the awareness of intensivists, digestive surgeons, and gastroenterologists involved in intestinal failure management to spread the use of chyme reinfusion or enteroclysis.