Changes in circulating vitamin D levels with loss of adipose tissue

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Low vitamin D levels have been extensively reported in obesity. Thus, the pandemic of obesity has been paralleled by a high prevalence of low vitamin D status. Given the well documented associations linking poor vitamin D status to adverse health outcomes (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, all-cause mortality), a proper understanding of the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to low vitamin D status is key to identify and implement effective interventions to replenish vitamin D levels in obese individuals. In this review, we will discuss recent literature investigating the effects of adipose tissue volume loss through energy restriction and/or physical activity on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels.

Recent findings

Improvements of circulating 25(OH)D levels with adiposity loss through lifestyle interventions without supplementation is being reported by a growing number of studies, including recent randomized controlled trials.

Summary

Low 25(OH)D is one of the metabolic disturbances associated with excess adiposity, particularly visceral adiposity. Recommendations for the treatment of obesity-related vitamin D deficiency should emphasize the role of visceral adiposity loss through healthy lifestyle habits, in conjunction with weight-adjusted vitamin D supplementation, not only to replenish 25(OH)D levels but also to address other visceral adiposity-related disturbances, such as insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

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