Does infant feeding modulate the manifestation of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes?

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Purpose of review

The review aims to critically discuss the role of infant feeding in the development of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Recent findings

Prospective observational and randomized interventional studies show that breastfeeding (BF) or BF during gluten introduction does not reduce the risk of developing CD, but high gluten consumption before age 2 years increased the risk in Swedish children.

Recent findings

Despite evidence from retrospective studies, prospective trials failed to find a protective effect of breastfeeding against the risk of T1D development. Nevertheless, breastfeeding at the time of cereal introduction decreases this risk. There is some evidence demonstrating that early exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of T1D in childhood, whereas the timing of gluten introduction, except if introduced very early, does not affect it.


Breastfeeding and/or timing of gluten introduction does not influence celiac disease risk. Breastfeeding at the time of cereal introduction might be protective against T1D. The introduction of certain solid foods at an early age may be associated with the risk of T1D.

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