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The current review provides an overview of recent literature on new findings related to bariatric surgery and gut gene expression.Bariatric surgery modulates the expression of intestinal genes. Experimental and clinical investigations have demonstrated the association of gut rearrangement with changes in intestinal expression of genes related to glucose metabolism. Recent data suggest that bariatric surgery also affects expression of genes belonging to other pathways, including nutrient transporters and metabolism of vitamin B12, decreasing pathway-encoding genes that may contribute to vitamin B12 deficiency in the postoperative period.Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention strategy against severe obesity, resulting in sustained weight loss and reduction of comorbidities. Nutritional genomic changes appear in response to bariatric surgery, possibly due to adaptive gut response. Improved understanding of the molecular pathways modulated by this intervention may facilitate weight and comorbidities management.