Current state of the use of neuroimaging techniques to understand and alter appetite control in humans

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Purpose of reviewIt is in the brain where the decision is made what and how much to eat. In the last decades neuroimaging research has contributed extensively to new knowledge about appetite control by revealing the underlying brain processes. Interestingly, there is the fast growing idea of using these methods to develop new treatments for obesity and eating disorders. In this review, we summarize the findings of the importance of the use of neuropharmacology and neuroimaging techniques in understanding and modifying appetite control.Recent findingsAppetite control is a complex interplay between homeostatic, hedonic, and cognitive processes. Administration of the neuropeptides insulin and oxytocin curb food intake and alter brain responses in reward and cognitive control areas. Additionally, these areas can be targeted for neuromodulation or neurofeedback to reduce food cravings and increase self-control to alter food intake.SummaryThe recent findings reveal the potential of intranasal administration of hormones or modifying appetite control brain networks to reduce food consumption in volunteers with overweight and obesity or individuals with an eating disorder. Although long-term clinical studies are still needed.

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