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Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a lumbar spine dual-energy absorptiometry texture index which provides information on skeletal quality partially independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A body of work has emerged demonstrating the relationship between TBS and fracture risk, with lower TBS values associated with increased risk for osteoporotic fracture in postmenopausal women and older men. TBS is derived from standard DXA images; however, the information provided by TBS is complementary to that provided by BMD. In this article, we review the current state of TBS and its evolving role in the assessment and management of osteoporosis, with particular emphasis on the literature of the previous year.TBS-adjusted The Fracture Risk Assessment tool (FRAX) probabilities enhance fracture risk prediction compared with conventional FRAX predictions. TBS has been found to better categorize fracture risk and assists in FRAX-based treatment decisions, particularly for patients close to an intervention threshold. However, change in lumbar spine TBS while undergoing antiresorptive treatment is not a useful indicator of antifracture effect.Lumbar spine TBS is a recently developed image-based software technique for skeletal assessment, complementary to conventional BMD, which has been shown to be clinically useful as a fracture risk prediction tool.