The period under review saw the landmark development of the publication of the Helicobacter pylori genome. There were at least three attempts at guiding the clinician with regard to selection of patients in need of therapy for H. pylori infection. Therapeutic strategies have evolved and include proton-pump inhibitor-based combination therapies. The controversy regarding the pathogenic potential of H. pylori strains continued, with no perfect marker being identified. The role of the organism in NSAID-associated disease was investigated also, yielding interesting results.