Endoscopic approach to gastrointestinal bypass in malignant gastric outlet obstruction

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a debilitating complication of cancer associated with a poor prognosis. The primary aim in the management of malignant GOO is usually palliation starting with the reinstitution of luminal patency with either surgical bypass or enteral stenting. These traditional modalities, however, have important limitations. Endoscopic bypass is a novel approach to GOO and may be an ideal technique, in which a sustained bypass can be created through a minimally invasive approach. The goal of this review is to describe the technical aspects as well as the clinical data of endoscopic bypass.

Recent findings

A review of this novel technique is timely given recent developments of several accessories and techniques that allow for safer and easier endoscopic bypass including the advent of the lumen apposing stent, a specialized double-balloon enteric tube, the EUS-assisted technique, and the natural orifice transluminal surgery approach. In addition, accumulating and promising data have emerged supporting the endoscopic approach to gastric bypass.

Summary

Endoscopic bypass is a novel and developing field of therapeutic endoscopy with improving technique and promising clinical data. This review will help to shed light on the current status and future direction of this intricate endoscopic modality.

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