Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterized from two genomic DNA-enriched libraries of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). The number of observed alleles among 35 samples of red pandas ranged from five to 12. Observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.286–0.971 and 0.443–0.894, and the mean polymorphic information content was 0.712. All loci followed Hardy–Weinberg expectations except Aifu-14 and Aifu-16, which may due to the presence of inbreeding or null alleles. Three pairs of loci exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. These microsatellites would be useful to strengthen population management, genetic diversity exploration, and demographic history speculation of this species.