New apheresis indications in hematological disorders

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Therapeutic apheresis can be used to treat many diseases. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) publishes Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis every 3 years with the goal of providing the best available evidence for apheresis practice as well as clinical expertise. The 2016 (7th ed.) ASFA Guidelines contain 87 diseases (up from 78 in the 6th ed.) and 179 indications. This review outlines three new therapeutic apheresis indications for hematological disorders.

Recent findings

The three new nonmalignant and nontransplant-related hematological disorders discussed are therapeutic plasma exchange procedures for hemophagocytic syndrome, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome, and red blood cell exchange to prevent alloimmunization after exposure to rhesus (D)-positive red blood cells. All three indications are ASFA category III indications (i.e., optimal role of apheresis therapy is not established) with Grade 2C recommendation (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence).

Summary

Although the three new therapeutic apheresis indications related to hematological disorders are ASFA category III with Grade 2C recommendations, along with other ASFA category III with Grade 2C recommendations, they may form the list of diseases for which basic, translational, and clinical research is needed to provide better evidence for clinical practice.

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