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Poor adherence to oral antiretroviral treatment in a subpopulation of persons with HIV-1 infection interferes with the potential success of the drug regimens in treating the infection. Here, we review long-acting antiretroviral strategies currently in clinical development that could prove useful for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in individuals not succeeding with short-acting oral regimens.Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has succeeded in creating two novel long-acting injectable antiretroviral compounds, carbotegravir and rilpivirine, which have completed early clinical trials demonstrating the safety, tolerability and prolonged antiretroviral activity. 4′-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2′-deoxyadenosine (EFdA; MK8591) is a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in early clinical development as a long-acting orally administered drug and in a long-acting polymer implant. Broadly neutralizing and cell-entry inhibitor monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated potent antiviral activity in early human trials; however, there is substantial baseline resistance. In addition, monotherapy leads to rapid resistance in those with baseline susceptibility.Long-acting antiretroviral chemical compounds and monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated potent anti-HIV activity in the early-stage clinical investigations, and are actively being studied in advanced clinical trials for treatment and prevention. Strategies to manage toxicities and waning drug levels of chemical compounds, as well as primary and secondary resistance to current monoclonal antibodies are important considerations.