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The current review highlights recent advances in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics that are relevant for clinicians engaged in the care of HIV-positive adults.The first section focuses on newly available tools, highlighting recent progress. The second section focuses on new diagnostic approaches that are not yet widely available or implemented, but have considerable potential to improve the management of TB/HIV coinfected persons. The final section speculates about future directions that may be fruitful.Advances in Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleic acid amplification-based genotypic tests stand to improve case detection and drug susceptibility testing in the near term. Identification of human gene expression signatures that are associated with TB and/or TB risk, and the identification of novel M. tuberculosis targets coupled with exploitation of advances in biosensor technology may transform TB diagnosis in the future.