The best news from the treatment perspective is the high efficacy of a single oral dose of 1 g azithromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is probably the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen. Also, a 2g single dose of metronidazole appears to be as effective as a 7-day course to cure bacterial vaginosis. Intrapartum vaginal chlorhexidine flushings result in a reduction of the mother-to-child transmission of group B streptococci, and antibiotics in women with preterm labour or preterm, premature rupture of membranes, seem to improve the neonatal outcome. The risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with an intrauterine device correlates strongly to the insertion process and the background of sexually transmitted diseases. New diagnostic techniques for PID, including transvaginal sonography and radionuclide scintigraphy, need further evaluation.