Infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex are the most commonly reported opportunistic bacterial infections in people with HIV disease. The past year has seen much progress in defining those at risk, characterizing pathogen virulence factors and host immune responses, and the development of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools. Similar accomplishments in the treatment and prophylaxis of M. avium complex infections have substantially improved our ability to manage patients with advanced HIV disease. The next year should bring new insights into determining the most effective drug regimens for treatment and prevention of M. avium complex disease. Alternatively, continued development of rapid diagnostic tests, particularly for determining drug susceptibility, and new and more effective drugs is sorely needed to accomplish the same with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, which will continue to be a major public health issue in the coming year.