Salmonellosis acquired from poultry

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Among the various poultry product-related foodborne pathogens, gastrointestinal infections caused by egg-borne nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major concern in developed and developing countries. This review is focused on the latest findings and implications for food safety.

Recent findings

Salmonella enteritidis is a predominant serovar for egg-associated human salmonellosis except for Oceania. In Australia, Salmonella typhimurium is the predominant serovar. The cross-section and longitudinal epidemiological investigations yielded mixed results but mainly reported that faecal sampling is the best indicator of egg contamination. Salmonella serovars are able to survive on eggshell for several weeks and form biofilm. The invasion potential of some Salmonella serovars is influenced by the enrichment factors in the environment. Whole-genome sequencing is being adopted for investigation of Salmonella outbreaks, although the culture method remains a prerequisite.

Summary

Industry stakeholders and public health authorities have different perceptions regarding ecology and control of Salmonella from farm to fork. Given the challenges such as variation in Salmonella serovars, emergence of virulent types, ability of bacteria to sustain harsh environment and host defence mechanisms, expensive diagnostics and lack of a single robust intervention, joint efforts from regulators and public health officials are required.

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