Aspergillus and other respiratory fungal infections in the ICU: diagnosis and management

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Purpose of reviewFilamentous fungi respiratory infections, namely because of Aspergillus, Mucorales, Fusarium, or Scedosporium, show rising incidence and occur more in populations which are not classically immunosuppressed. This and their persistent dismal prognosis are the focus of this review.Recent findingsBoth an early diagnosis, rooted on a high level of suspicion and based on clinical picture, radiology, cultural microbiological exams, fungal biomarkers, PCR and biopsy, and an early therapy, including immunorecovery, whenever possible, good antifungal selection, and surgery for source control, are paramount to maximize the outcome in these diseases. An evolving antifungal armamentarium and a more Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics-based antifungal prescription may help to improve the prognosis.SummaryImproved awareness of these infections may increase the level of suspicion, promoting early diagnosis and treatment, ideally supported with expert stewardship.

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