Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection in solid organ transplant recipients: implications for outcome and treatment

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is the best therapeutic option for both acute and chronic end-stage diseases. The development of more potent and safer immunosuppressants and the improvement of prophylactic practices have significantly diminished the morbidity and mortality associated with rejection and opportunistic infections. However, infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have recently emerged as a significant threat.

Recent findings

The Spanish Society of Transplantation (SET), the Group for Study of Infection in Transplantation of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (GESITRA-SEIMC) and the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) have recently published their recommendations concerning the management of MDR GNB infections in SOT recipients. We review this guideline, and also the most recent available evidence, focusing on donor-derived infections, colonized recipients and therapeutic approaches.

Summary

Overall, donor and recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection by MDR GNB, although none of these circumstances constitutes an absolute contraindication to transplantation. SOT recipients with risk factors for MDR GNB infection should receive an empirical treatment which includes potentially active antibiotics. Targeted therapy should be adjusted according to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and severity of infection.

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