Recent work on the neuropsychology of epilepsy assesses cognitive impairment in epilepsy, especially memory deficits and the effects of these on everyday life. Transient impairments of cognition may occur in a sizeable proportion of adults and children, but are usually accompanied by overt signs of a subtle seizure. The anti-epileptic drugs in common use produce only mild cognitive impairments, but there may be room for further improvement. Temporal lobectomy to control drug-resistant epilepsy can cause some general improvements in cognition but there is also an increase in material-specific memory problems. Evidence is reviewed on the effects of psychological processes on epilepsy. Relaxation techniques may reduce seizure frequency.