Nonmethadone pharmacotherapies in opioid addiction

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Abstract

This review discusses the alternative pharmacotherapies to methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence based on an analysis of recent research literature. These alternative strategies include the nonopioid agonists clonidine and lofexidine, the partial agonist buprenorphine, and methods of rapid and ultrarapid detoxification using opioid antagonists in combination with heavy sedation or anaesthesia. Finally, a review is given of recent studies on the long-acting opioid agonist levo-α-acetylmethadol.

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