Biomechanical aspects of initial intraosseous stability and implant design: a quantitative micro-morphometric analysis

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Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this biomechanical study was to explore the effect of bone micro-morphology on initial intraosseous stability of implants with different designs.

Material and methods

Straumann and Astra Tech dental implants were placed into anterior and posterior regions of completely edentulous maxilla and mandible of a human cadaver. Experiments were undertaken to quantify initial implant stability and bone micro-morphology. Installation torque values (ITVs) and implant stability quotients (ISQs) were measured to determine initial intraosseous implant stability. For quantification of relative bone volume and micro-architecture, sectioned implant–bone and bone core specimens of each implant placement site were consecutively scanned and trabecular bone was analyzed in a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) unit. Experimental outcomes were evaluated for correlations among implant designs, initial intraosseous implant stability and bone micro-structural parameters.

Results

ITVs correlated higher with bone volume fraction (BV/TV) than ISQs, at 88.1% and 68.9% levels, respectively. Correlations between ITVs and micro-morphometric parameters were significant at the 95% confidence level (P<0.05) while ISQs were not. Differences in ITVs, ISQs and BV/TV data in regards to implant designs used were not significant at the 95% confidence level (P>0.05).

Conclusion

Bone micro-morphology has a prevailing effect over implant design on intraosseus initial implant stability, and ITV is more sensitive in terms of revealing biomechanical properties at the bone–implant interface in comparison with ISQ.

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