Topical application of statin affects bone healing around implants

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Abstract

Objectives

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely used for hyperlipidemia. Recent studies demonstrate that statins stimulate bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression and lead to bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the topical application of statin enhances the osteogenesis around a titanium implant.

Materials and methods

Ten-week-old female rats received pure titanium rods in both tibiae with or without fluvastatin. Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) was used as a carrier. The rats were divided into five groups: implant-only group, implant with PGA group, low-dose group [implant+PGA containing 3 μg of fluvastatin (FS)], medium-dose group (15 μg of FS), and high-dose group (75 μg of FS). The animals were sacrificed at 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. Peri-implant bone formation was assessed by histomorphometric procedures, i.e., measuring the bone–implant contact (BIC) and peri-implant bone volume (BV). A mechanical push-out test was also performed to evaluate the implant fixation strength. Statistical differences among the groups were determined by ANOVA and P<0.05 was considered significant.

Results

At week 1, there was no significant difference in BIC among the groups, however, BV and the push-out strength were significantly higher in the high-dose group than in the implant-only group. At week 2, BIC and BV had significantly increased in the high-dose group in comparison with the non-statin groups. The fluvastatin-treatment group showed a significant increase in push-out strength compared with the non-statin groups.

Conclusion

Our histomorphometrical and mechanical evaluations revealed the positive effect of topically applied fluvastatin on the bone around the implant.

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