A novel technique for tailored surface modification of dental implants – a step wise approach based on plasma immersion ion implantation

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A novel technique based on plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is presented to modify titanium implant surfaces.

Materials and methods:

Initially, the implants are cleaned with argon to remove contaminants and the nanostructures are created by the bombardment of the surface with a mix of noble gases. Desired crystal structure of the titanium is obtained by the implantation of oxygen on the contaminant-free surface with particular nanostructures.


In this study, turned implants modified by PIII revealed a high density of rutile-TiO2 nanostructures. Turned implants used as control revealed mainly microstructures and amorphous crystal structure. Surface roughness values were similar at the microscale for both turned and turned + PIII implants. Bone response was evaluated by removal torque tests of implants placed in the rabbit tibia and femur. After 4 weeks of healing, turned + PIII demonstrated higher removal torque values (P = 0.001) compared to turned implants.


The presence of rutile-TiO2 nanostructures may explain the improved bone formation to turned + PIII implants.

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