The effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite veneering material to three implant framework materials

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To evaluate and compare the shear-bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material to three different implant framework materials (zirconia ceramics, gold alloy, and titanium), and to investigate the effect of surface pretreatment by air-particle abrasion and four priming agents.

Material and methods

A gingiva-colored indirect composite (Ceramage) was bonded to three framework materials (n = 80): commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti), ADA (American Dental Association)-type 4 casting gold alloy (Type IV), and zirconia ceramics (Zirconia) with or without airborne-particle abrasion. Before bonding, the surface of the specimens was treated using no (control) or one of four priming agents: Alloy Primer (ALP), Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP), Metal Link Primer (MLP), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear-bond strength was determined after 24-h wet storage. Data were analyzed using Steel–Dwass for multiple comparisons, and Mann–Whitney U-test (P = 0.05).


For both CP-Ti and Zirconia substrates, three groups, ALP, EOP, and MLP, showed significantly higher bond strengths (P < 0.05) than the other groups with or without airborne-particle abrasion. For Type IV substrates, significantly higher bond strengths were obtained in ALP and MLP groups (P < 0.01) compared with the other groups with airborne-particle abrasion.


Application of priming agents containing specific phosphoric ester groups significantly enhances the bond strength of a gingiva-colored composite material to commercially pure titanium and zirconia frameworks. Combined use of a thione monomer with a phosphoric monomer enhances the bond strengths to airborne-particle abraded type IV gold alloy.

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