Is there a gender difference in anatomic features of incisive canal and maxillary environmental bone?

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The effect of gender on anatomic structures and various body systems were illustrated in the literature. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of gender and tooth loss on incisive canal characteristics and buccal bone dimensions in the anterior maxilla.

Materials and methods

Computed tomographies (CTs) of 417 male and 516 female patients in four dental clinics were included in this study. The diameter and the length of the incisive canal; width and the length of the bone anterior to the canal; palatal bone length, root length, and root width of the central incisor teeth were measured and recorded from CT sections.


Mean incisive canal length was 11.96 ± 2.73 mm and 10.39 ± 2.47 mm in men and women, respectively, (P < 0.05). In men, mean canal diameter was 2.79 ± 0.94 mm whereas in women it was 2.43 ± 0.85 mm and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Men had significant higher buccal bone dimensions (length and width of the bone anterior to the canal) than women. Absence of teeth in the anterior maxilla decreased incisive canal length and buccal bone dimensions; however, canal diameter remain unchanged.


Present results suggested a gender related differences in anatomic features of incisive canal and surrounding buccal bone. In addition, crestal canal diameter, buccal bone length, and thickness parameters might be different in distinct countries.

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