Biphasic alloplastic graft used to preserve the dimension of the edentulous ridge: an experimental study in the dog

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Abstract

Background:

Loss of teeth results in marked qualitative and quantitative alterations of the alveolar process at the edentulous site. It was observed that a graft comprised of bovine bone mineral placed in the fresh extraction socket delayed tissue modeling, but preserved the dimension of the ridge at edentulous sites.

Objective:

To analyze the influence of a biphasic synthetic graft on tissue modeling and remodeling during healing of extraction wounds.

Material and methods:

Five beagle dogs were used. Two premolars in the maxilla and two in the mandible were included. Full thickness flaps were elevated and the distal roots were removed. An alloplastic graft (BPCAP; α-TCP core coated with nanocrystalline biomimetic hydroxyapatite) embedded in porcine collagen was placed to fill the fresh extraction socket of the premolar sites. Flaps were replaced to cover the entrance of the extraction sockets during early healing. The extraction and grafting procedures were scheduled to allow for the study of 1, 2, and 3 months socket healing. The biopsies from the maxillary sites were decalcified, embedded in paraffin, and stained to allow the study of various aspects of hard tissue formation. The biopsies from the mandibular sites were processed for ground sectioning and used to evaluate alterations of ridge dimensions after 3 months of socket healing.

Results and conclusion:

It was documented that the biphasic alloplastic graft did not undergo marked resorption during tissue modeling and remodeling, but allowed large amounts of bone to form within the post-extraction site. Grafting the experimental sites with this biomaterial furthermore counteracted ridge resorption that otherwise occurs following tooth extraction.

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