Since the original description of osteoinduction in the early 20th century, the study and development of innovative biomaterials has emerged. Recently, novel synthetic bone grafts have been reported with potential to form ectopic bone in vivo. However, their full characterization in comparison with other leading bone grafts has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoinductive potential of bone grafts by comparing autogenous bone grafts, demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA), a commonly utilized natural bone mineral (NBM) from bovine origin (Bio-Oss), and a newly developed biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP).Materials and methods:
Grafts were compared in vitro for their ability to stimulate bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) migration, proliferation, and differentiation as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR for genes coding for bone markers including Runx2, collagen I, and osteocalcin. Furthermore, bone grafts were implanted in the calf muscle of 12 beagle dogs to determine their potential to form ectopic bone in vivo.Results:
The in vitro results demonstrate that both autografts and DFDBA show potential for cell recruitment, whereas only autografts and BCP demonstrated the ability to differentiate BMSCs toward the osteoblast lineage. The in vivo ectopic bone model demonstrated that while NBM particles were not osteoinductive and autogenous bone grafts were resorbed quickly in vivo, ectopic bone formation was reported in DFDBA and in synthetic BCP grafts.Conclusion:
The modifications in nanotopography and chemical composition of the newly developed BCP bone grafts significantly promoted ectopic bone formation confirming their osteoinductive potential. In conclusion, the results from this study provide evidence that synthetic bone grafts not only serve as a three-dimensional scaffold but are also able to promote osteoinduction.