Systemic vitamin D supplementation and local bone formation after maxillary sinus augmentation – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigation

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Abstract

Objectives:

Maxillary sinus augmentation procedures with bone replacement grafts aimed to increase bone height in the posterior maxilla. During healing, bone particles are partially resorbed and replaced by the patient's own bone. Vitamin D plays an essential role in calcium homeostasis and is critical for bone formation and remodeling.

Materials and methods:

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigation studied whether oral supplementation with vitamin D3 (5000 IU) combined with calcium (600 mg) impacts bone formation and remodeling after maxillary sinus augmentation compared to a placebo medication containing calcium alone (n = 10/group). Bone cores were harvested at the time of implant placement (6–8 months) for histological analysis.

Results:

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were comparable between both groups at the baseline (P = nonsignificant [n.s.]). Vitamin D3+ calcium supplementation improved significantly serum 25-OHD levels (placebo vs. vitamin D3 group: 25-OHD ng/ml: 31.13 ± 7.06 vs. 61.11 ± 20.42, P ≤ 0.01); however, no statistically significant difference in bone formation or graft resorption was detected between groups. However, in the vitamin D3 group, a significant association was found between increased vitamin D levels and number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts around graft particles suggesting that local bone remodeling might be more pronounced when serum vitamin D levels were improved (r = 0.92, P ≤ 0.05).

Conclusions:

Vitamin D3+ calcium supplementation improves serum vitamin D levels and potentially impacts local bone remodeling on a cellular level. However, no statistically significant difference in bone formation or graft resorption was detected between groups.

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