The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical application of vitamin D over implant surface, placed immediately to the extraction, throughout histological and histomorphometric analysis of peri-implant tissue.Material and methods:
Six American foxhound dogs were used in the study. Mandibular premolar distal roots were extracted. Twenty-four immediate conical C1 implants (MIS, Barlev, Israel) were randomly assigned to the distal site on each site of the mandible in three groups: (Group CI) 12 titanium implants alone; (Test Group DI) 12 titanium implants supplemented with vitamin D. Prior to implanting, test implants (DI) were submerged in vitamin D 10% solution. No treatment was applied at control implants (CI). After 12 weeks, animals were sacrificed. Block sections were obtained and processed for mineralized ground sectioning. Bone-to-implant contact (Total BIC and BIC%), new bone formation (NBF), interthread bone (ITB), and histological linear measurements (HLM) were analyzed.Results:
At 12 weeks, all implants were clinically stable and histologically osseointegrated. BIC evaluation showed Total BIC mean and SD values for DI (48.96 ± 2.14), CI (44.56 ± 1.75) (P < 0.05), BIC% DI (43.59 ± 0.98), and CI (42.67 ± 9.26) (P > 0.05). For interthread bone formation, values were as follows: DI (15.21 ± 3.87), CI (14.79 ± 1.45) (P > 0.05), no statistically differences. Regarding peri-implant new bone formation, no statistically differences could be found between the two groups DI (31.87 ± 1.23), CI (27.18 ± 2.38) (P > 0.05). For linear measurements, test group (DI) showed statistically significant less buccal crestal bone loss (CBL) DI (0.37 ± 0.12)*, CI (1.26 ± 0.8) (P < 0.05), and vitamin D implants showed less lingual junctional epithelium DI (1.58 ± 0.43)*, CI (2.18 ± 0.48) (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the buccal mucosa.Conclusion:
With the limitation of animal studies, topical application of vitamin D on dental implants could reduce crestal bone loss and increase 10% more bone-to-implant contact at 12-week follow-up period.