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Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoproteins secreted by the intestine can contribute to dyslipidemia and may increase risk for CVD. This review focuses on how dietary carbohydrates can impact the production of chylomicrons, thereby influencing plasma concentrations of triglycerides and lipoproteins.Hypercaloric diets high in monosaccharides can exacerbate postprandial triglyceride concentration. In contrast, isocaloric substitution of monosaccharides into mixed meals has no clear stimulatory or inhibitory effect on postprandial triglycerides. Mechanistic studies with oral ingestion of carbohydrates or elevation of plasma glucose have demonstrated enhanced secretion of chylomicrons. The mechanisms underlying this modulation remain largely unknown but may include enhanced intestinal de novo lipogenesis and mobilization of intestinally stored lipids.The studies reviewed here have implications for dietary recommendations regarding refined carbohydrate intake and prevention of CVD.