|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Familial hypercholesterolemia is a frequent genetic disease associated with a high lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are the cornerstone of treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia; however, with the advent of novel LDL-cholesterol lowering therapies, it has become necessary to identify familial hypercholesterolemia subjects presenting a significant residual CVD risk. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the recent literature concerning cardiovascular risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia.Recently, several clinical and genetic factors have been shown to be independent predictors of CVD in familial hypercholesterolemia. These include clinical scores such as the Montreal-FH-SCORE, novel protein biomarkers, carotid plaque score and genetic predictors such as genetic risk scores as well as single-nucleotide polymorphisms.Although there has been recent progress in cardiovascular risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia, there is still a need to further refine our knowledge concerning phenotype modifiers in this disease. Indeed, current known predictors do not explain the entirety of cardiovascular risk. More precise individual risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia could help to better tailor the proper therapy for each patient.