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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important factor in the oncogenesis of various squamous cancers. Wepresent our experience.One thousand one hundred and seventeen patients (727 M and 389 F) were diagnosed as affected by anal condylomata from October 1999 to January 2010. Mean age was 34.7 years. Sixteen percent of patients were HIV+. Nine hundred and forty-six patients were submitted to surgery in one or more sessions.Histological examination revealed a degeneration in 59 (6.23%) patients: 13 AIN I; 6 AIN II; 6 AIN III; 10 Buschke Lowenstein neoplasms, 15 Bowen disease or Bowenoid papillomatosis; 2 carcinomas in situ; 7 carcinomas. 36 of these patients were HIV+ (61% of degenerations); and two patients were immunosuppressed (3.4%). HPV tipization, performed in 135 patients showed 105 low risk; 18 high risk and 12 low/high risk patients. Buschke Lowenstein tumours were submitted to radical surgery; anal carcinomas to RT + CT or to surgical excision; and other patients to surgical excision. Patients are in follow up.HPV related perianal condylomata are becoming increasingly frequent. Histopathological examination should be performed to detectprecancerous or cancerous changes. Molecular biological techniques allow identification of the HPV genotype so detecting oncogenic strains. Accurate follow up is mandatory.