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To demonstrate the utility of serial serum determinations of postoperative C-reactiveprotein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) in the identification of increased risk of anastomotic dehiscence (AD) after colorectal surgery.A retrospective study of 173 patients operated on between January 2008 and October 2009, who underwent surgery for colorectal disease with anastomosis. Patients with AD (Group A, n = 24) were compared to patients without dehiscence (Group B, n = 149). Patients withprevious or acquired unrelated postoperative infections were excluded. Meanpre-and postoperative values of CRP and WBC were compared.The diagnosis of AD was made between the 4th and 11th post-operative day (POD; mean: 7th POD).The daily average values of serum CRP were significantly higher in group A from the 2nd POD and remained significantly elevated until the diagnosis of dehiscence (P = 0.003). A cut-off value of 140 mg/l on the 3rd POD maximized the sensitivity (78%) and specificity (86%) of serum CRP in assessing the risk of dehiscence. Comparison of postoperative serum WBC values didn't show any significant differences between the two groups until the 6th POD.Early and persistent elevation of CRP, associated with a value > 140 mg/l on POD 3 after colorectal surgery with anastomosis, is apredictor of AD.