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Intraoperative neuropraxia (INP) is considered an important complication since it can leave permanent and serious neurologic consequences. The real incidence of intraoperative neuropraxia is not well known and it varies according to the location and the surgical specialty. The objective of this study is toprospectively analyze the appearance of INP as a complication of colorectal surgery, as well as to analyze possibleprevention methods.All the patients that underwent major colorectal abdominal and pelvic surgery in our specialized Colorectal Unit between 1996 and 2009 were analyzed. Weprospectively collected data on INP of the lower and upper limbs occurring during this period.Two thousand three hundred and four patients underwent surgery for colorectal pathology in our Unit during this period. Out of these, eightpresented a INP with an incidence of 0.3%. Laparoscopic approach was identified as a risk factor for INP (P < 0.0001), while age, gender, operation time, ASA score and urgent surgery were not (minimum P = 0.16).In colorectal surgery adequate positioning andproper devices must be used in order toprevent INP, particularly during laparoscopy, even for short operations and in young patients with good ASA status.