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There has been a long-standing debate concerning the existence and composition of the rectovaginal septum. The aim of the study was to evaluate by pelvic cadaveric dissection the composition of the rectovaginal septum.The pelvis of eight female cadaveric was dissected. All the pelvises were exposed in the median sagittal plane along the middle axis of the anal canal.In all cases an areolar plane was seen between the anterior mesorectum covered by its visceral fascia and the posterior vaginal wall. The posterior vaginal wall was clearly composed of three layers including mucosal, muscular and fascial. Dissection in the superior areolar plane in the rectovaginal space was more difficult due to thickening of connective tissue between the distal rectum and the posterior vaginal wall.The rectovaginal septum is the result of thickening of connective tissue between the distal rectum and the posterior vaginal wall.