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To evaluate the incidence of anastomotic leakage in colorectal laparoscopic surgery and to determine possible related risk factors.A retrospective study based on aprospectively collected database. All patients who underwent elective laparoscopic colorectal resections withoutprotective ostomies between June 2000 and May 2009 were included. Uni-and multivariate analyses were performed to determine possible related risk factors.Five hundred and sixty-two laparoscopicprocedures were included. 42 (7%) were associated with some otherprocedure. Malignant disease was the indication for surgery in 324 (58%) patients. 313 (56%) were male. The average age was 61 (17-92) years. The average operative time was 169 (60-440) min. Conversion rate was 9%. 30 (5.3%) patients had an anastomotic leak that was diagnosed at the fourth (1-10) postoperative day. The average hospital stay was 4.2 (1-71) days. Overall mortality was 0.17% (one patient). In the multivariate analysis, patients with ASA III/IV (P: 0.0003, OR 7.74, IC 95% 2.58-23.22) and operative time > 180 min (P: 0.006, OR 3.53, IC 95% 1.44-8.70) were associated with a higher incidence of anastomotic leakage.ASA III/IV patients and operative time longer than 180 min were independentpredictive factors for anastomotic leaks in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.