Delay of punishment gradients for the goldfish

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In Exp. I with 30 goldfish, Ss punished for feeding with response-shock intervals of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 sec. displayed suppression of feeding, and the voltage shock necessary for suppression was an increasing function of delay from 0–10 sec. In Exp. II with 36 goldfish, suppression of feeding varied significantly with delay of punishment (0, 5, 10 sec.) and shock intensity (10, 25 v.) over a constant number of punishment trials. No recovery was exhibited on a retention test after 3 days, but recovery occurred on subsequent punishment-free extinction tests. Recovery was determined largely by amount of suppression at the end of punishment, rather than by residual effects of delay of punishment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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