Neuroimaging has improved the understanding, diagnosis, and management of several neurologic diseases and syndromes. Recent advances in the neuroimaging of epilepsy, movement disorders, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system are reviewed. Current research confirms that structural and functional neuroimages each provide unique, clinically useful information in these disorders. Quantification of images improves their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Presymptomatic or early neurochemical changes have been identified and followed longitudinally in several neurodegenerative diseases, providing a method for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention and pathophysiologic hypothesis testing. Functional activation studies and receptor-specific radioligands continue to advance our understanding of these disorders. Future methods will take increasing advantage of both the ability to measure neuropharmacological and neurochemical changes in vivo, and the ability to combine images and information obtained with distinct structural and functional neuroimaging modalities.