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The clinical and laboratory assessment of nystagmus in patients with neurologic disorders can provide crucial elements for a state-of-the-art differential diagnosis. An increasing number of publications in the fields of neuro-otology and neuro-ophthalmology have nystagmus in the center of interest, which makes frequent updates on the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of these contributions indispensable. This review covers important clinical studies and studies in basic research relevant for the neurologist published from January 2016 to August 2017.Current themes include vestibular nystagmus, positional nystagmus, optokinetic nystagmus and after-nystagmus, vibration-induced nystagmus, head-shaking nystagmus, postrotatory nystagmus, caloric nystagmus, nystagmus in cerebellar disorders, differential diagnosis of nystagmus and treatment approaches (whereas infantile nystagmus syndrome is not addressed in this review). These studies address mechanisms/pathomechanisms, differential diagnoses and treatment of different forms of nystagmus.In clinical practice, a structured description of nystagmus including its three-dimensional beating direction, trigger factors and duration is of major importance. The differential diagnosis of downbeat nystagmus is broad and includes acute intoxications, neurodegenerative disorders and cerebrovascular causes amongst others. In patients with positional nystagmus, the distinction between frequent benign peripheral and rare but dangerous central causes is imperative.