Evaluation of urinary markers in acute renal failure

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Acute renal failure continues to be a difficult clinical problem despite developments in dialysis and critical care. Diagnosis of the etiology frequently determines treatment, Urinalysis remains an essential diagnostic tool in the approach to acute renal failure, particularly with the current emphasis on cost-containment and evidence-based medicine. This review focuses on some of the characteristic features in the urinalysis found in different forms of acute renal failure, current developments into the molecular basis for these urinary abnormalities, and new markers on the horizon.

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