Intradialytic hypotension

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Abstract

Purpose of review

This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) and measures that may reduce its frequency.

Recent findings

The frequency and severity of IDH predict the risk for adverse clinical outcomes. The highest mortality risks associated with IDH were observed when the intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) nadirs were <90 and <100 mmHg and the predialysis SBP were ≤159 mmHg or ≥160 mmHg, respectively. Interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) ≥3 kg occurs more frequently among patients with IDH. Prolonged and possibly more frequent dialysis, use of biofeedback devices, dialysate cooling and limiting sodium loading are useful measures to reduce the frequency of IDH.

Summary

Frequent IDH is associated with high IDWGs and a poor prognosis. Studies on prolonged dialysis, biofeedback devices and cooled dialysate have yielded promising results. Intradialytic relative blood volume monitoring devices have been investigated in preventing IDH but results are mixed. Administration of a sodium/hydrogen exchange isoform 3 inhibitor increases stool sodium but has not been shown to decrease IDWG. IDH continues to be a significant dialysis complication deserving of further investigation.

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