Enzymatic sources and physio-pathological functions of soluble (pro)renin receptor

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Purpose of review

(Pro)renin receptor (PRR) belongs to type I transmembrane receptor family and binds both prorenin and renin, representing a potential regulator of the activity of the renin–angiotensin system. Soluble form of PRR (sPRR) is generated by intracellular protease-mediated cleavage of full-length PRR. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action and production of sPRR.

Recent findings

It has recently been demonstrated that site-1-protease (S1P) plays a dominant role in the generation of sPRR. New evidence is also emerging to support a biological function of sPRR in the physiological regulation of fluid homeostasis as well as pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease.


sPRR is a 28 kDa product of PRR cleavage via S1P-mediated protease activity. Not only does sPRR regulate renal tubular water transport, but it also mediates pathogenic responses to renal cellular injury. sPRR is likely involved in a wide range of physio-pathological processes.

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